There are many different types of bush medicines.
Some plants, like ilpengk, are crushed, mixed with fat and applied to the skin. Others are boiled and inhaled, slowly chewed, or occasionally drunk. Some saps are directly smeared on the skin, and there are barks that are smoked.
Healing rituals such as singing are also an important part of bush medicine.
Pictured: Topsy Pwerle holds Artepwel